Summary Overview of Roman and English History

Anacyclosis ran its full course in classical antiquity.  Rome provides the most perfect example of that time.  The first kings were remembered with affection, the last kings with resentment.  In the 6th century B.C. an aristocracy expelled the last tyrant.  By the 5th century the people were in revolt against an oligarchy.  The military organization in the 3rd century implies something of a middle class.  The political organization of the 2nd century implies something of democracy.  By the end of the 2nd century the middle class was ruined.  By the beginning of the 1st century loyalty to the Roman state had been replaced by the patronage of the popular leaders.  By the end of the 1st century B.C. authority in the Roman state had been vested in the emperors.  From monarchy, though republic to empire, the cycle ran its full course in Rome, drawing the whole of the Mediterranean basin in its train and under its domain.

Anacyclosis has nearly run its full course in the west.  England gives us the clearest example of our time.  The first kings are known for being brave and wise.  Their successors are known for being reckless and inept.  In the 13th century A.D. an aristocracy subdued the monarchy.  By the 14th century the people rebelled against the nobility.  By the 17th century an oligarchy was firmly entrenched.  In the 18th century a middle class was taking shape.  In the 19th century democracy was taking effect.  By the end of the 20th century the middle class was in decline.  In the beginning of the 21st century the rich were growing in wealth and the poor were growing in numbers.  By now it is clear that demagogues will continue to grow in power as more people fall out of the middle class and rally against the rich.  It also seems likely that this pattern will be followed wherever English is the prevailing language.